Dr. Hari Prashad Adhikari

1. Biography

1.1 Family Background

Parents of Dr. Hari Prashad Adhikari were known to have migrated to Bhutan from Chintok (Adhikari village), Panchthar, Taplejung, Nepal in the year about B.S. 1867. It said that father of Adhikari were then six years old when the grandfather Bhaskar had taken him to Bhutan. Bhaskar had taken all his siblings to Bhutan and at first were inhabited at Mithun Kharka of Kikorthang Gewog, under Tshirang district. Although the place was lucrative, arable and suitable for the subsistence, they budged in the dumpy epoch of time to Sarbhangsir, under Sarpang district. Since then they on tracked their rural vocation in Bhutan and embarked on to dole out the country all the way paying the consigned tariff. However and whatever means and mediums they opt, could not endowed with better fiscal status to the ancestors. Thus, subsequent to thirty years of their defrayal, they budged their residency to Laring Khopitar village of Hilay gewog under Sarpang district. This place is four miles remote from the adjacent and trendy marketplace, as well the district headquarter-Sarpang. Ever since they were not acknowledged to have drifted and have given improved fiscal status to the family verve, progressively. His ancestors belongs to the Hindu family. In Hindu religion, castism has imperative function in the public status. His family belongs to the Brahman family i.e. the ecclesiastic family.

1.2 Nativity and Nomenclature

Dr. Hari Prashad Adhikari was born to the first son of Bhaskar, Chabi Lal Adhikari on 02/03/1963 at Sarpangsir under Sarpang district. Chabi Lal had two spouses Damanta and Deu Maya. He is the son from second wife. The bona fide forename bestowed him during the nomenclature is Hem Nath, but both in literary as well in the academic credentials he prevalently turned out to be entitled as Hari Prashad. He has a brother from the step-mother, who perished when he had become just eight months. From his mother, there are three brothers – Kashi Nath, Dilli Ram and Madhav. Similarly, he had four sisters. Being the youngest in the family, he prevalently been called as Kanchho, the youngest.

1.3 Childhood

Adhikari, in the childhood was a boy with short annoyance. Sometimes, lamenting and sometimes jovial. Being the youngest in the family, he was receiving excessive adore from the kith and kin. He was affable, inquisitive and was in the vicinity of his father. He was also twitchy that once a saint had come to his house and was counting the beads, early cock-crow. He went in close proximity and ruptured a firecracker. The saint was so riotously terrified that he promptly absented the spot in trepidation.

He was rigid on his pronouncement during the childhood. He often used to make his father to craft a sway. For this too, sometimes tetchy for having longer, he used to oblige to slashed and sometimes he used to oblige to make prolonged. So, his father often obligated to make cord for the son.

From the childhood itself, he ostracized being biased. Sometimes, sisters impending from their nuptial abode, used to confer sweets clandestinely to him but he used to show and dole out to all and gobble only the small remaining bit.

During his infancy, he used to go to look after the goats and cattle along with the brothers and sisters. One day, when a he-goat, which he used to concern, was traded by his father to the butcher, he whimpered acrimoniously. He was against the butchery of flora and fauna. While the butcher began to haul the he-goat, he began to thump the man with a stick. So, to mollify the fury of the lad, he conferred a two-rupee note. He still repents on supporting the butchery, by accepting the note circuitously.

In the subsequent occurrence, there was a small rite, performed at his abode. He was playing with the friends outside. During the time of serving Parshad, he was called in and was given a Tapari(leaf-made-plate)-full of sel-roti, a typical Nepali cake. After getting the Parshad, he came out and found just one each cake in the friends’ hand and him with four and in the Tapari. He fuming with the sight went in, carried out as much cake as he could and distributed among the associates.

1.4 Rites and Rituals

As has stated in 1.1, he belongs to the Hindu family, his rites and rituals must institute from the infancy. So he received his first rituals of male, Bratabanda, at the age of eight. There are several raisons d’être to give this rituals to him – he had previously done with the primary erudition of the religious books by then; he cannot read the religious books like Rudri, Beda, etc. without this ritual; his all the seniors had received this rituals and according to the custom, go the Chulo (a fire-place as well the sanctioned place to eat meal for the ritual received male and married female) and he was adamant to stay with brothers while ingestion.

1.5 Interest and Hobby

From the early childhood, he was a unadulterated vegan. He used to like any types of veg-dishes with any flavor. He was no hicky-picky on the food. Regarding to the attire, although he used to wear Kamiz and Dhoti, a typical Indian lower wearing, as was obligatory to wear in the Pathshala, he likes to wear continental attire. He likes to participate and watch the playoffs.

Adhikari used to adore to comprehend the trendy books like Ramayan, Namranibedan, Munamadan, Sayapatriko Thungo, literary articles of Lekhnath Paudel and Sanskrit books of Kalidas. Still he has some rhymes unsullied in his reminiscence from the infancy from these books and now too whenever he gets free time, turns the sheets from them. As he received Sanskrit education from the early babyhood, and having the first language as Nepali, he desired from the early age to lend a hand to society in imparting these languages.

1.6 Marriage

While he was studying at Lamidanda Sanskrit Pathshala and in a year, it was an event that he was scripting an assessment, he was called after his assessment by the superintendent Dandapani Khanal. He was then inquired with numerous queries interconnected to ancestors, edification and interest. Before he reached home, Khanal had tripped his home and had nattered to his father to have nuptials between Adhikari and his daughter. So they had an indulgent upon the agreement with him. Even they had harmonized the China, a nativity credential prepared astrologically and found that both the girl and boy had good go with with the pose of stars, planets and kismet. So, when he was inquired by his father about the nuptials offer, he furnished unvoiced acceptance, which resulted the matrimony with Uma Devi Khanal. He was then seventeen and she was fifteen.

1.7 Personality

Bhim Timsina, has divided the persona of Adhikari in fourteen categories viz. physical, psychological, social, literary, artistic, diagnostic, enlightening, opinionated, pedagogical, translational, representative, Sanskrit aficionada, managerial, and vigilant orator. So, Adhikari possesses multi-personalities. Timsina explicates – “Adhikari is not seen like a hilly region Nepali. Rather he seems like an Indian with high class standard. He has fat body with bulging belly, ample and bulky cheek, wide-ranging forehead, well furnished eyes, Aryan-nose with little abut curvature, confers the look of highly scholarly persona. The combed hair adds magnificence to him. Keeping moustache and beard is his personal interest. Ever jovial chops glorifies his persona and seizes the eyes of the personage. Encompassing slippers as favorite bottom wearing, on no account creates reverberation through the foot steps of ramble. He is 5 feet and 7 inch tall and is around 80 kilogram in weight (till time of this thesis is prepared).”[1] He is psychologically affecting person. Anything – whether contentment or distress, loss or gain, tap him in next to no time. He is dedicated, laborious, steadfast, serene, forbearing to every circumstance. He is belligerent upon the social mucky practices, backwardness, prejudice, bigotry, exploitation, selfishness, tyranny, autocracy, occurrences or procedures in the society. He likes to be realistic rather than hypothetical. He sees everyone with the widespread ogles and perceives everything with the identical decorum. He loves to stay in the peace and tranquil social environment. He was motivated to write by the physique of his birthplace. Adhikari writes “Literature is a mirror of the society.” So the literature created by the creator, replicates the writer’s society and the milieu he/she lives. He has presented his scholarly persona by expurgation of the textbook of Comparative Religious Philosophy for Sampurnananda Sanskrit University for the third years’ apprentices of Bachelor degree  like Manabiyagyanbishayakamshastram and Aryataaraanamaskaaraikabimshati a book deciphered by Sangye Dorji Yonjan (Lama) from the Tibetan language to Nepali. He has also abridged many magazines and journals like Raiwaar (western Nepali language magazine), Bhutani Deepak, Bhutani Nawasandesh, and Swarna Deepak. He has also become a good guide to the students of Doctorate degree from Sampurnananda Sanskrit University.

Adhikari has a high-quality familiarity on politics. In 1990, he was the chief advisor for the president Lt. R.K. Budhathoki. While working for Bhutan People’s Party, he was the chief of the information and communication. Although he reconciled from Bhutan People’s Party for the persistence of his study, he re-joined politics when public persevere to contribute politics through Bhutan National Democratic Party, in the year 1992, as a Secretary and still he is working in the same post.

2. Education

2.1 Early Education

Adhikari belongs to the Hindu conventional and Sanskrit erudite family. His grandfather Bhaskar, was a well-esteemed Purohit- local cleric. His youngest uncle, Nandi Kishor was the then esteemed Pandit-highly scholar Hindu Priest and first graduate of Sanskrit language from Bhutan. Even his own brothers Dilli Ram and Madhav were talented Sanskrit scholars. So he was begun to learn Devnagari script at the residence by his uncles and father, from his age five. He was a hasty novice with excellent reminiscence. Before he had begun Devnagari alphabet, he had begun to say numerous rhymes of Gita and Durga Saptasati, just by snooping his brothers’ erudition. After he learnt all the Devnagari alphabet, numbers and several other religious books, he was sent to Lamidanda Sanskrit Pathshala, situated at Lamidanda, Tshirang, Bhutan at the age of 15. He premeditated there for two years and completed Sukla Yajurbeda, Amarkosh and Laghu Kaumadi. He left Lamidanda after his marriage.

2.2 Entry to India and Higher Education

By the age of eighteen, Adhikari had turned out to be well developed, inquisitive and arduous upon the study. He was also highly stimulated by the uncle’s and brother’s talent, prestige and honor received from the society. These added craze of edification on him. Thus, to begin his higher edification he chose Banaras Hindu University as his axis as his brothers too had studied there, absconding from the house. Finding no one to help, as he had reached without the consultation from his brothers and father, he could not adhere university. He then left for Rishikesh, the other Sanskrit edification center city in Uttar Pradesh of India. There he met several students from Nepal. He leant that in Devghat of Nepal, good Sanskrit education is being given, he again left for this place. There he congregated Swami Janardan Acharya at Laxmi Bankateswor temple and re-studied and completed Laghu Kaumadi and Madya Sidhanta. Then he returned to Banaras with more optimism. He met there Pandit Jagannat Sharma Kandel and Devraj Bista, who facilitated him to get access at Ramanuj Mahavidyalaya. He began his cram with the subjects Beda and Nepali.  He passed Metric in the year 1981, Proficiency Level in the year 1983 and Bachelor Degree in the year 1985. Judging his aptitude, the fourth king of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wanchuk granted him scholarship, to receive monthly Rs. 350 and Rs. 100 as stationeries fee. He then joined Sampurnanda Sanskrit University taking Comparative Religious Philosophy. He passed Master degree in the year 1988. Even then he didn’t impede his edification. He begun his doctorate cram under the supervision of Professor Radheshyamdhar Dwibedi. He was honored with the Doctorate tile in the subject of Nagarjunshankaracharyadarshanayostulanatmakam Bibechanam in the year 1992. So, by the age of twenty nine, he accomplished all the scholastic study, with the attainment of Doctorate degree.

3. Career

3.1 Beginning of the service

Higher the degree he accomplished, sharper and witty he became. He became more rational, more cantankerous, more arduous and more artistic. So, there was no predicament for him to be depicted for the employment. He first began his vocation as a volunteer teaching to his subordinate chums in the same university. Soon after the completion of his graduation, he was appointed as a Sanskrit and Hindi lecturer for Karma Shree Nalanda Sansthan, Rumtek, East Sikkim, in the year 1987, through Dr. Ram Shankar Tripathi, who was then head of the Department of Buddhist Philosophy and was the retired Professor of Sampurnananda Sanskrit University. He persisted this service till 1991 as an honest and dedicated lecturer. By then he had become a reputed lecturer. Recognizing his talent, the Government of Bhutan summoned to Bhutan to dole out the nation. It was also a obligation to him as he was awarded Government scholarship for his study. Thus, he reconciled from his service and returned to Bhutan. He was then asked to work under the Education Ministry and as a Nepali and Sanskrit teacher at Tongsa Junior High School from 1988, through provisional appointment. Since he could not find the physique of the place complimentary to him, began his communication to Karma Shree Nalanda Sansthan, elucidating his concern of returning to Sikkim. So, Nalanda Sansthan began to corresponded with the Government of Bhutan, appealing the service requirement from Adhikari. So, he was summoned by National Service Commission of Bhutan for the interview. There was no qualm that he will be disastrous in the interview. There he elucidated his significance of returning to Sikkim. Few days after this interview, he acknowledged a telegram from Thimphu. He promptly left Tongsa for the meeting with commissioner of Royal Civil Service Commission, Sonam Tobgye. During the meeting, he was permitted to go to Karma Shree Nalanda for the period two years as a transfer service. So, serving the nation for three months, he returned to Sikkim by the December of 1988.

3.2 Service to the University

While Adhikari was in service at Rumtek, he came to know that the form for the vacant seat for the Department of Comparative Religious Philosophy in Sampurnananda Sanskrit University for the post of a professor, has been made public. Shortly after the submission of the application, he was depicted by the working committee of the university as a professor to edify the vacated subject from the date 11/11/1991. In the mean while he had begun his Doctorate study too and concluded by the year 1992. Since then he has been working in the same university.

3.3 Honors and Award

Adhikari has been awarded metric level credential of second division, proficiency level credential of first division and bachelor degree credential of first division in the subject of Sukla Yajurbeda. He has been honored with the master degree credential of first division from Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Varanasi, India, in the subject Comparative Religious Philosophy, and from the same university Doctorate degree in the subject Nagarjunashankaracharyadarshanayostulanatmakam Bibechanam in the year1992. He has been honored by the title Jyotis Parashar, in the year 1998, from Nepal Astrological Research Center, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the International Astrological Summit. He has received Rs. 200 cash award being first during the university level Shlokantakscheriya competition, organized by Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, in the year 1986. He was honored by the Nepali Language Association, Bhutan at Tri-Ratna Secondary School, Beldangi – II Refugee Camp, in the year 2000 for contributing the society by writing and publishing books Sansarik Chintan and Saamaajik Chintan.

3.4 Involvement

Adhikari has attachment with the different organizations. The key organizations that he had and has been implicated are cited as  subsequently –

1. Chairman, Bhutan Vedik Sewa Samiti, 1992 to till now

2. Contact Person, Bhutan People’s Party, 1990-1991

3. Secretary, Bhutan National Democratic Party, 1992-till now

4. Founder Director, (the then Bhutan Student Welfare Committee and now) Bhutan National Student Association, Varanasi, 1992 – till now

5. Senior Founder, Nepali Sanskrit Student Association, 2001 – till now

6. Vice-President, Shree samrajyeshwor Pashupatinath Mahadev Temple, religious inn and Old age home managing committee, Lalitghat, Varanasi, 2056B.S. to till now

7. Founder President, International Sanskrit Development Center, 1998 to till now

8. Editor, Gandibam-weekly Sanskrit mangazine, Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Varanasi, 1993 – till now

9. Central Working Committee member, World Hindu Federation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 1993 – till now

10. Life Member, Akhil Bharatiya Darshan Parishad, 1997 – till now

11. Program Officer, National Service Commission, Government of India, 2000 – till now

12. Treasurer, Bhutanese Student Association, 1984 – 1985

13. Chairman, Bhutanese Student Association, 1985-1987

14. Co-ordinator, World Student Association, Uttar Pradesh, India, 1984-1988

15. Spoke person, National Teachers’ Federation, Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Varanasi Unit, 2001 – till now

4. Literature

4.1  Influence and Motivation

Adhikari is seen to have been prejudiced and motivated to write after the interpretation of Ramayana by Bhanubhakta Acharya, Mahabharat, Namranibedan by Jagannath Guragain, Durga Saptasati, Geeta, and Shrimadbhagawat Mahapuran. We can see many occurrences, milieus and situations that he has cited, gives the vivid portraits of those milieus stated in those books. Especially in stipulations of the rhyming styles, he is profoundly seems to have been influenced from the employ of Anustup chanda in Shrimadbhagawat Mahapuran and Geeta. Similarly he seems to have inclined from the poems of Parasmani Pradhan, Ritu Bichar of Lekhnath Paudel, and Munamadan of Laxmi Prasad Devkota. His books Saamaajik Chintan and Saansaarik Chintan, are based of the humanism subsisted in the society. He is seems to have been influenced by the feeling of humanism of Laxmi Prasad Devkota. Some of his literary works we can find the wiles of social tribulations in prevalence. In some of the works, we also find political sways.

4.2 Beginning of Literary Writing

During the time of 1980s, while he was in his parish, Khopitar, Sarpang, he was left a day to care a child at home. The baby seems to have sniveled, and he could not counsel. So, he was motivated to write a poem as Baalakko Pratikriya, as following, which is the ever found first poem by him-

Dokaako chyaapamaa haata adkaayera besari

Taanche ani runa thaalche sakesamma marimari.

After this, his poems are found created only after he was established in Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Varanasi. His second poem Aahwan, was recited during the poem recitation competition organized by Deepaakanvent School, Meerghat, Varanasi, in 1981, in which he plunked first. The next poem was published in the Biswesworprasad Koirala Memorial Magazine Ekataa as Shok Sambedanaa in the 2049B.S. This limerick reads as below-

Saddharmako deepa liyera haata saddharma sewikana paari saatha

Annyaaya aandhisita jodimaatha garnu bhayo kraanti atullya naatha

In the language of Sanskrit, at first his poem was published in Gaandibam, in 1982 as Abhyarthana. He deems that “Poem should be straight, lucid and trouble-free to comprehend and should influence to the profundity of the compassion.”[2] Adhikari writes both prose and rhyming poems. From the initial stage itself his poems replicate a theory-based expertise on him.

His literary expedition begins from Nepali poems and with the trail of Sanskrit and Hindi Languae, he has reached till the creation of sub-epic Sansaarik Chintan and Saamaajik Chintan. Though there aren’t his quantitative literary works, whatever he has produced, have become invaluable achievement in the history of Bhutanese Nepali Literature.

4.3 Literary Achievement

4.3.1 Uncompiled literary work

Adhikari has published articles, which are not compiled, written in different period of time. His published poems along with the published magazines, publisher, year, volume number, and page numbers are given below-

1. Sok sambedanaa, Ekta, Nepali Student Association, central office, foreign area, 2049 B.S., Vol. 2, Page 26

2. Swargiya Shri Biswesworprasad Koirala Prati, Ekta, Nepali Student Association, central office, foreign area, 2049 B.S.,Vol. 5, Page 81-82

3. Udbodhan, Udbodhan, Bhutan People’s Party, 1990

4. Yehi ho Jiwan?, Srasta-International Nepali Poem special publication, Srasta,2002, Vol. 50, 559-560

Many other literary work related to Nepali, Hindi and Sanskrit are published in the different year’s publication of Ayan, Ekataa, Yaatri, Gandibam, Saraswoti Sushma, Lok Shree, Suryodaya magazines. He has also written many books which are yet to publish in Sanskrit and Nepali languages.

4.3.2 Major Works

Adhikari’s major work includes Sansaarik Chintan – 2043 B.S. and Saamaajik Chintan – 1988

4.3.2.1 Saamaajik Chintan

This book was published in the year 2043 B.S. (1987 A.D.), published from Varanasi, Utter Pradesh, India. This is a Khanda Kaabya (sub-epic). This is the first sub-epic ever written in the history of Bhutanese Nepali literature. This book is based on the tribulations subsisted in the society and the enunciation adjacent to them. He is intensely predisposed by the solidarity of the cultures in variance in the societies of Bhutan. From this book, Adhikari is proven to be the contemporarily honored persona in the intact Nepali literature all over the world. In the history of Bhutanese Nepali sub-epic, his pose is at the zenith. His book has turned out to be a signpost in the entire Bhutanese history of Nepali literature.

As Saamaajik Chintan is the first epic of the Bhutanese Nepali Literature, this consists several poems tied within a strand. The book consists 55 pages beside the swathe. If we eliminate the prop ups and adages of the significant celebrities, the authentic subject matters are adjusted in 46 pages.

The topics included in this epic are shown below-

1. Dharma ke ho?

2. Sampradaayaharuko taatparya ke ho?

3. Jaati ke ho?

4. Mandirharumaa ke hundaichha?

5. Sanskrit Bhasha Braahmanko maatra ho?

6. Dui Bihe garnu thik ho?

7. Bidhwaa pukaar

8. Antim Nibedan

There is a scheme of using explicit rhyme in the epic writing as per the oriental approach of literary writing. Adhikari has used and tagged on the same principle. He has used Saardulabikridit Chhanda ubiquitously and in the concluding part, he has written like an appeal to the readers. For this he has used Maalini Chhanda. Even if you take out this appeal from the epic, there will be no upshot to the surge of sentiment. Thus, we can say that the epic has been composed purely in Saardulabikridit Chhanda. From the above topics, we assume that till sixth topics are problematic titles, while seventh and eight are not. The last two topics are concluded with the different Chhandas as from the preceding. They are concluded in Basantatilakaa and Bhujangaprayaat Chhanda respectively. Though there is no resemblance in chhanda use in these two topics, the theme is following in succession i.e. social and contemporary.

4.3.2.2. Saasaarik Chintan

This book was published in the year 2043 B.S. (1988 A.D.), published from Varanasi, Utter Pradesh, India. This is a Khanda Kaabya (sub-epic). This is the second sub-epic ever written in the history of Bhutanese Nepali literature. This book is more cultured in terms of language usage, rhyme, plot, and other literary items. Then significant facets of this book is that it is written based on the oriental classical barna maatrik chhanda conjecture.

As in first epic Adhikari has not combined the epic into different topics. There are 392 rhymes concentrated on the epical subject matter. In additional to the commencing and concluding 9/9 rhymes, there are 410 rhymes.

5. Conclusion

Adhikari is the first sub-epic writer of Bhutan in Bhutanese Nepali literature. He has laid the foundation of writing poetry. With his epics, not only within Bhutanese community, he has also become an imperative persona in the entire Nepali literature. Beside the scholastic aptitude, his literary input is an immense contribution to the Bhutanese Nepali literary gallery. We anticipate that he will still amplify the gallery of the literature with many more publication of literary works.

References:

1. Timsina, Bhim Prasad, Dr. Hari Prasad Adhikari ko Jiwani, Byaaktitwo ra Kaabya Kritiko Adhyayan, a thesis submitted to Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Nepali, for the fulfillment of M.A. second year, tenth paper, 2049 B.S.

2. Adhikari, Ganga Ram, Edited, Bhutan Parichaya, Nepali Bhasha Parishad, Bhutan, 1999.

3. Bhattarai, Ghattaraj, Nepali Lekhak Kosh, Laxmi Prasad Devkota Pratisthan, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2056 B.S.

(Note from the compiler: This is the first profile compilation in terms of Bhutanese Literature, many topics might have been missed or uncovered. All the valued readers, Adhikari’s family and known to him are requested to provide such valuable matters in connection to the writers, which may help him to be honored.)

Compiled by

Pashupati Timsina


[1] See page 23, under 3.1.1 in the Thesis by Bhim Prasad Timsina

[2] Timsina writes in his thesis, page 25, paragraph 1